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The attacks stopped only a month before the war in Europe ended, when the last launch site in the Low Countries was overrun on 29 March The British operated an arrangement of air defences , including anti-aircraft guns and fighter aircraft, to intercept the bombs before they reached their targets as part of Operation Crossbow , while the launch sites and underground V-1 storage depots were targets of strategic bombing.

In late , while employed by the Argus Motoren company, Fritz Gosslau began work on the further development of remote-controlled aircraft; Argus had already developed a remote-controlled surveillance aircraft, the AS military designation FZG On 31 May, Rudolf Bree of the RLM commented that he saw no chance that the projectile could be deployed in combat conditions, as the proposed remote-control system was seen as a design weakness.

Heinrich Koppenberg, the director of Argus, met with Ernst Udet on 6 January to try to convince him that the development should be continued, but Udet decided to cancel it.

Despite this, Gosslau was convinced that the basic idea was sound and proceeded to simplify the design. As an aircraft engine manufacturer, Argus lacked the capability to produce a fuselage for the project and Koppenberg sought the assistance of Robert Lusser , chief designer and technical director at Heinkel.

On 22 January , Lusser took up a position with the Fieseler aircraft company. A final proposal for the project was submitted to the Technical Office of the RLM on 5 June and the project was renamed Fi , as Fieseler was to be the chief contractor.

By 30 August, Fieseler had completed the first fuselage, and the first flight of the Fi V7 took place on 10 December , when it was airdropped by a Fw The V-1 was designed under the codename Kirschkern cherry stone [10] by Lusser and Gosslau, with a fuselage constructed mainly of welded sheet steel and wings built of plywood.

The simple, Argus-built pulsejet engine pulsed 50 times per second, [2] and the characteristic buzzing sound gave rise to the colloquial names "buzz bomb" or "doodlebug" a common name for a wide variety of flying insects.

Three air nozzles in the front of the pulsejet were at the same time connected to an external high-pressure air source that was used to start the engine.

Acetylene gas was typically used for starting the engine, and very often a panel of wood or similar material was held across the end of the tailpipe to prevent the fuel from diffusing and escaping before ignition.

The V-1 was fuelled by litres US gallons of 75 octane gasoline. The Argus As also known as a resonant jet could operate at zero airspeed because of the nature of its intake shutters and its acoustically tuned resonant combustion chamber.

However, because of the low static thrust of the pulse jet engine and the very high stall speed of the small wings, the V-1 could not take off under its own power in a practically short distance, and thus needed to be ground-launched by aircraft catapult or air-launched from a modified bomber aircraft such as a Heinkel He The unsuccessful prototype was a version of a Sprengboot , in which a boat loaded with explosives was steered towards a target ship and the pilot would leap out of the back at the last moment.

The Tornado was assembled from surplus seaplane hulls connected in catamaran fashion with a small pilot cabin on the crossbeams. The Tornado prototype was a noisy underperformer and was abandoned in favour of more conventional piston engined craft.

The engine made its first flight aboard a Gotha Go on 30 April The V-1 guidance system used a simple autopilot developed by Askania in Berlin to regulate altitude and airspeed.

Operating power for the gyroscope platform and the flight-control actuators was provided by two large spherical compressed air tanks that also pressurized the fuel tank.

With the counter determining how far the missile would fly, it was only necessary to launch the V-1 with the ramp pointing in the approximate direction, and the autopilot controlled the flight.

There was a more sophisticated interaction between yaw , roll and other sensors: This interaction meant that rudder control was sufficient for steering and no banking mechanism was needed.

An odometer driven by a vane anemometer on the nose determined when the target area had been reached, accurately enough for area bombing.

Before launch, the counter was set to a value that would reach zero upon arrival at the target in the prevailing wind conditions. As the missile flew, the airflow turned the propeller, and every 30 rotations of the propeller counted down one number on the counter.

Two spoilers on the elevator were released, the linkage between the elevator and servo was jammed and a guillotine device cut off the control hoses to the rudder servo, setting the rudder in neutral.

These actions put the V-1 into a steep dive. The sudden silence after the buzzing alerted listeners of the impending impact. The fuel problem was quickly fixed, and when the last V-1s fell, the majority hit with power.

Initially, V-1s landed within a circle 19 miles 31 kilometres in diameter, but by the end of the war, accuracy had been improved to about 7 miles, which was comparable to the V-2 rocket.

Trialen fillings were identified by the warhead being painted red, although the assembled missiles were painted green or grey over this.

Fuzing was by a triple fuze system. The main fuzes were an electrical impact fuze and a mechanical backup impact fuze. These were immediate action fuzes, the intention being to detonate the warhead on the first impact with the surface, rather than allowing itself to become buried first.

This was a major difference from the V-2, and a reason for the high lethality of the V Although they did not demolish buildings or deep structures as effectively as the air-dropped bombs, or the deep-burying V-2, their blast effects were almost all released at the surface and caused many casualties.

The electrical fuze, ZLPM 76, was mounted at the front, immediately behind the compass and the air speed propeller. It connected to a central exploder tube through the warhead, containing the gaine and boosters.

Two transverse fuze pockets, in typical German fashion, were placed in the upper surface of the warhead for the secondary fuzes, also connecting to this same tube.

To avoid the risk of this secret weapon being examined by the British, there was a third time delay fuze. This was too short to be any sort of booby trap, just to destroy the weapon if a soft landing had not triggered the impact fuzes.

These fuzing systems were very reliable and there were almost no dud V-1s recovered. Ground-launched V-1s were typically propelled up an inclined launch ramp by an apparatus known as a Dampferzeuger "steam generator" , which reacted stabilized hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate T-Stoff and Z-Stoff , [20] the same combination of chemicals used as propellants for the Messerschmitt Me Komet rocket plane, and the Walter HWK Starthilfe RATO rocket booster unit.

The original design for launch sites included a number of hangars or storage garages as well as preparation and command buildings, as well as the launch ramp, all of which were easily identifiable from aerial photographs resulting in bombing attacks on the sites.

Launching needed a steam generator. A light design utilising a small 7. The first complete V-1 airframe was delivered on 30 August , [10] and after the first complete As.

The LXV Armeekorps z. Erich Heinemann was responsible for the operational use of V The conventional launch sites could theoretically launch about 15 V-1s per day, but this rate was difficult to achieve on a consistent basis; the maximum rate achieved was Overall, only about 25 per cent of the V-1s hit their targets, the majority being lost because of a combination of defensive measures, mechanical unreliability or guidance errors.

With the capture or destruction of the launch facilities used to attack England, the V-1s were employed in attacks against strategic points in Belgium, primarily the port of Antwerp.

Launches against Britain were met by a variety of countermeasures, including barrage balloons and aircraft including the Hawker Tempest and Gloster Meteor.

These measures were so successful that by August about 80 per cent of V-1s were being destroyed [23] the Meteors, although fast enough to catch the V-1s, suffered frequent cannon failures, and accounted for only However, repeated failures of a barometric fuel-pressure regulator led to it being changed in May , halving the operational height, thereby bringing V-1s into range of the Bofors guns commonly used by Allied AA units.

The trial versions of the V-1 were air-launched. Apart from the obvious motive of permitting the bombardment campaign to continue after static ground sites on the French coast were lost, air-launching gave the Luftwaffe the opportunity to outflank the increasingly effective ground and air defences put up by the British against the missile.

To minimise the associated risks primarily radar detection , the aircrews developed a tactic called "lo-hi-lo": When the launch point was neared, the bombers would swiftly ascend, fire their V-1s, and then rapidly descend again to the previous "wave-top" level for the return flight.

Research after the war estimated a 40 per cent failure rate of air-launched V-1s, and the He s used in this role were vulnerable to night-fighter attack, as the launch lit up the area around the aircraft for several seconds.

The combat potential of air-launched V-1s dwindled as progressed at about the same rate as that of the ground-launched missiles, as the British gradually took the measure of the weapon and developed increasingly effective defence tactics.

Late in the war, several air-launched piloted V-1s, known as Reichenbergs , were built, but these were never used in combat.

Hanna Reitsch made some flights in the modified V-1 Fieseler Reichenberg when she was asked to find out why test pilots were unable to land it and had died as a result.

She discovered, after simulated landing attempts at high altitude where there was air space to recover, that the craft had an extremely high stall speed and the previous pilots with little high-speed experience had attempted their approaches much too slowly.

Her recommendation of much higher landing speeds was then introduced in training new Reichenberg volunteer pilots.

The Reichenberg s were air-launched rather than fired from a catapult ramp as erroneously portrayed in the film Operation Crossbow.

There were plans, not put into practice, to use the Arado Ar jet bomber to launch V-1s either by towing them aloft or by launching them from a "piggy back" position in the manner of the Mistel , but in reverse atop the aircraft.

A somewhat less ambitious project undertaken was the adaptation of the missile as a "flying fuel tank" Deichselschlepp for the Messerschmitt Me jet fighter, which was initially test-towed behind an He A Greif bomber.

The pulsejet, internal systems and warhead of the missile were removed, leaving only the wings and basic fuselage, now containing a single large fuel tank.

A small cylindrical module, similar in shape to a finless dart, was placed atop the vertical stabilizer at the rear of the tank, acting as a centre of gravity balance and attachment point for a variety of equipment sets.

A rigid tow-bar with a pitch pivot at the forward end connected the flying tank to the Me The operational procedure for this unusual configuration saw the tank resting on a wheeled trolley for take-off.

A number of test flights were conducted in with this set-up, but inflight "porpoising" of the tank, with the instability transferred to the fighter, meant the system was too unreliable to be used.

An identical utilisation of the V-1 flying tank for the Ar bomber was also investigated, with the same conclusions reached.

Some of the "flying fuel tanks" used in trials utilised a cumbersome fixed and spatted undercarriage arrangement, which along with being pointless merely increased the drag and stability problems already inherent in the design.

One variant of the basic Fi design did see operational use. The progressive loss of French launch sites as proceeded and the area of territory under German control shrank meant that soon the V-1 would lack the range to hit targets in England.

Thus the F-1 version developed. Additionally, the nose-cones and wings of the F-1 models were made of wood, affording a considerable weight saving.

With these modifications, the V-1 could be fired at London and nearby urban centres from prospective ground sites in the Netherlands. Frantic efforts were made to construct a sufficient number of F-1s in order to allow a large-scale bombardment campaign to coincide with the Ardennes Offensive , but numerous factors bombing of the factories producing the missiles, shortages of steel and rail transport, the chaotic tactical situation Germany was facing at this point in the war, etc.

Beginning on 2 March , slightly more than three weeks before the V-1 campaign finally ended, several hundred F-1s were launched at Britain from Dutch sites under Operation "Zeppelin".

Almost 30, V-1s were made; by March , they were each produced in hours including for the autopilot , at a cost of just 4 per cent of a V-2 , [1] which delivered a comparable payload.

Approximately 10, were fired at England; 2, reached London, killing about 6, people and injuring 17, Antwerp , Belgium was hit by 2, V-1s from October to March However, they later considered other types of engine, and by the time German scientists had achieved the needed accuracy to deploy the V-1 as a weapon, British intelligence had a very accurate assessment of it.

The British defence against the German long-range weapons was Operation Crossbow. In September , a new linear defence line was formed on the coast of East Anglia , and finally in December there was a further layout along the Lincolnshire — Yorkshire coast.

On the first night of sustained bombardment, the anti-aircraft crews around Croydon were jubilant — suddenly they were downing unprecedented numbers of German bombers; most of their targets burst into flames and fell when their engines cut out.

There was great disappointment when the truth was announced. Anti-aircraft gunners soon found that such small fast-moving targets were, in fact, very difficult to hit.

The altitude and speed were more than the rate of traverse of the standard British QF 3. The static version of the QF 3. The cost and delay of installing new permanent platforms for the guns was fortunately found to be unnecessary - a temporary platform built devised by the REME and made from railway sleepers and rails was found to be adequate for the static guns, making them considerably easier to re-deploy as the V-1 threat changed.

In , Bell Labs started delivery of an anti-aircraft predictor fire-control system based on an analogue computer , just in time for the Allied invasion of Europe.

These electronic aids arrived in quantity from June , just as the guns reached their firing positions on the coast.

Seventeen per cent of all flying bombs entering the coastal "gun belt" were destroyed by guns in their first week on the coast. This rose to 60 per cent by 23 August and 74 per cent in the last week of the month, when on one day 82 per cent were shot down.

The rate improved from one V-1 destroyed for every 2, shells fired initially, to one for every This still did not end the threat, and V-1 attacks continued until all launch sites were captured by ground forces.

Observers at the coast post of Dymchurch identified the very first of these weapons and within seconds of their report the anti-aircraft defences were in action.

This new weapon gave the ROC much additional work both at posts and operations rooms. The critics who had said that the Corps would be unable to handle the fast-flying jet aircraft were answered when these aircraft on their first operation were actually controlled entirely by using ROC information both on the coast and at inland.

Fighter aircraft required excellent low altitude performance to intercept them and enough firepower to ensure that they were destroyed in the air rather than crashing to earth and detonating.

Most aircraft were too slow to catch a V-1 unless they had a height advantage, allowing them to gain speed by diving on their target.

When V-1 attacks began in mid-June , the only aircraft with the low-altitude speed to be effective against it was the Hawker Tempest. Fewer than 30 Tempests were available.

They were assigned to No. Early attempts to intercept and destroy V-1s often failed, but improved techniques soon emerged. At least sixteen V-1s were destroyed this way the first by a P piloted by Major R.

Routed further north, U. This bypass extends around Oxford and Kennett Square , merging into the four-lane divided Baltimore Pike just beyond the latter.

As the freeway ends, the four lane divided highway upgrades to six lanes north of I passing through the Penns Neck section of West Windsor Township.

Through Penns Neck is a series of traffic signals. NJDOT is looking to revamp the highway through this area by replacing traffic signals with grade separations.

The highway enters Middlesex County through Plainsboro and South Brunswick, where the highest point resides. The six lane divided highway remains through Rahway in Union County and Elizabeth , until it reaches the Newark Airport , where it becomes a dual carriageway freeway around downtown Newark in Essex County with a configuration.

As it enters Greenwich, Connecticut, it continues as a two lane local road. Beyond New Haven , the highway travels east—west, and some signs in the state indicate this rather than the standard north—south.

Most of this part is a four-lane divided highway , providing access to Route towards Newport. The route parallels I again through Providence and Pawtucket and into Massachusetts , traveling towards Boston as a four-lane road.

During construction, drivers had to detour to one of two other nearby bridges carrying U. Route 1 Bypass or Interstate In it was renamed the Atlantic Highway, [12] and the northern terminus was changed to Calais, Maine.

North of Augusta, Georgia , the highway generally followed the Eastern U. Fall Line , rather than a more easterly route through the swamps of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the comic book, see U. Route 1 in Florida. Route 1 in Georgia. Route 1 in North Carolina and South Carolina.

United States Numbered Highways ed. Archived from the original on February 4, Retrieved October 13, James on designating the Federal-aid system and developing the U.

Retrieved August 9, Auto Road Atlas Map. Scenic, Historic and Very Slow, December 29, ". Highway signs are color-coded for easy recognition.

Archived from the original on March 14, North Carolina Department of Transportation. New laws in the D. Rutgers University Community Repository.

The New York Times.

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