Jan 25, Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'azerbaidzhan' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und. Aserbaidschan (aserbaidschanisch Azərbaycan) (russisch Азербайджан) ist ein Binnenstaat in Vorderasien. Zwischen dem Kaspischen Meer und dem. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'Azerbaidzhan' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten. However, the fall of the Soviet Union, and the Nagorno-Karabakh War during the s, damaged the tourist industry and the image of Azerbaijan as a tourist destination. Music of Azerbaijan builds on folk traditions that reach back nearly a thousand years. On yleistä, että toimittajiin kohdistuu fantasy football tips ja että heitä vastaan nostetaan tekaistuja syytteitä. Turkish is isländischer reporter intelligible with Azerbaijani, so people will likely understand you weihnachtslotterie spanien 2019 long as you stick to simple words biathlon antholz staffel herren speak slowly. Die Konsularabteilung der Botschaft der Republik Aserbaidschan bleibt aufgrund des seeler enkel Novrusfestes vom bett 90 In the 21st century, a new oil and gas boom helped to improve the situation in Azerbaijan's science and technology sectors, and the government launched a campaign aimed at modernization and innovation.

His most important work is Heydar Babaya Salam and it is considered to be a pinnacle of Azerbaijani literature and gained popularity in the Turkic-speaking world.

It was translated into more than 30 languages. In Azerbaijani language and literature programs are offered in the United States at several universities, including: Azerbaijani served as a lingua franca throughout most parts of Transcaucasia except the Black Sea coast, in southern Dagestan , [29] [30] [31] the Eastern Anatolia Region and Iranian Azerbaijan from the 16th to the early 20th centuries, [32] [33] alongside the cultural, administrative, court literature, and most importantly official language of all these regions, namely Persian.

Beginning in , it was introduced as a language of study in Kutaisi instead of Armenian. In , Azerbaijani became a compulsory language for students of all backgrounds in all of Transcaucasia with the exception of the Tiflis Governorate.

Azerbaijani is one of the Oghuz languages within the Turkic language family. Azerbaijani is classified by Ethnologue as a " macrolanguage [36] and North Azerbaijani spoken mainly in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Russia and South Azerbaijani spoken in Iran, Iraq and Syria are each classified as separate languages with "significant differences in phonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax, and loanwords.

Both languages also have dialects, with 21 North Azerbaijani dialects and 11 South Azerbaijani dialects. Although there is a very high degree of mutual intelligibility between both forms of Azerbaijani, there are also morphological and phonological differences.

Four varieties have been accorded ISO codes: Glottolog , based on Johanson and Pakendorf , classifies North Azerbaijani with Salchuq in one branch of the Oghuz languages and South Azerbaijani with Qashqai in another.

According to the Linguasphere Observatory , all Oghuz languages form part of a single "outer language" of which North and South Azerbaijani are "inner languages".

North Azerbaijani, [38] or Northern Azerbaijani, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. It is closely related to the modern day Istanbul Turkish, the official language of Turkey.

It is also spoken in southern Dagestan , along the Caspian coast in the southern Caucasus Mountains and in scattered regions throughout Central Asia.

As of there are some 9. The Shirvan dialect as spoken in Baku is the basis of standard Azerbaijani. Since , it has been officially written with a Latin script in the Republic of Azerbaijan, but the older Cyrillic script was still widely used in the late s.

Ethnologue lists 21 North Azerbaijani dialects: South Azerbaijani [41] is widely spoken in Iranian Azerbaijan historic Azerbaijan and, to a lesser extent, in neighboring regions of Iraq and Turkey, with smaller communities in Syria.

The CIA World Factbook reports in the percentage of South Azerbaijani speakers at around 16 percent of the Iranian population, or approximately 13 million people worldwide, [47] and ethnic Turks form by far the second largest ethnic group in Iran, thus making the language also the second most spoken language in the nation.

Dialects of South Azerbaijani include: Historically, Azerbaijani and Turkish speakers have been able to communicate with relative ease. Speakers of Turkish and Azerbaijani can communicate with each other but both languages have substantial variation and mutual intelligibility is enhanced when Azerbaijani speakers have been exposed to Turkish television e.

Turkish soap operas or when Turkish speakers have been exposed to Azerbaijani pop music [ why? Most Azerbaijanis, however, are exposed to Turkish television , and, therefore, they tend to be better able to understand Turkish than vice versa.

There are also numerous Turkish schools in the Republic of Azerbaijan that give students more exposure to Turkish than the average Turkish-speaker has to Azerbaijani.

Azerbaijani exhibits a similar stress pattern to Turkish but simpler in some respects. Azerbaijani is a strongly stressed and partially stress-timed language unlike Turkish which is weakly stressed and syllable-timed.

Here are some words with a different pronunciation in Azeri and Turkish that mean the same in both languages:. There are no diphthongs in standard Azerbaijani when two vowels come together; when that occurs in some Arabic loanwords, diphthong is removed by either syllable separation at V.

Before , Azerbaijani was written only in the Persian version of the Arabic alphabet. In — a Latin alphabet was in use for North Azerbaijani although it was different from the one used now , from to the Cyrillic script was used, and in the current Latin alphabet was introduced, although the transition to it has been rather slow.

The Perso-Arabic Azerbaijani alphabet is an abjad ; that is, it does not represent vowels. Also, some consonants can be represented by more than one letter.

The Azerbaijani Latin alphabet is based on the Turkish Latin alphabet, which in turn was based on former Azerbaijani Latin alphabet because of their linguistic connections and mutual intelligibility.

Azerbaijani Turkic also uses a , e , i , o and u with the macron:. In the case of length distinction, these letters are used for Arabic and Persian borrowings from the Islamic period, most of which have been eliminated from the language.

Native Turkic words have no vowel length distinction, and for them the macron is used solely to indicate palatalization.

Azerbaijani Turkish, when written in the Latin or Cyrillic script, transcribes any foreign names into Azerbaijani spelling, e.

No epenthetic vowels are written for syllabic forms nonconforming to Azerbaijani in this process. Hyphenation across lines directly corresponds to spoken syllables as in other Turkic languages.

Punctuation and capitalisation is based on Russian orthography. Azerbaijani has informal and formal ways of saying things. This is because there is a strong tu-vos distinction in Turkic languages like Azerbaijani and Turkish as well as in many other languages.

The informal "you" is used when talking to close friends, relatives, animals or children. The formal "you" is used when talking to someone who is older than you or someone for whom you would like to show respect a professor, for example.

As in many Romance languages, personal pronouns can be omitted, and they are only added for emphasis. Azerbaijani has a phonetic writing system, so pronunciation is easy: Greater numbers are constructed by combining in tens and thousands larger to smaller in the same way, without using a conjunction in between.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Iranian language, see Old Azeri language. Location of Azerbaijani speakers in Transcaucasia.

Languages of Azerbaijan and Languages of Iran. This section needs expansion with: You can help by adding to it.

Johanson, Lars and Bulut, Christiane eds. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, Azeri Turkish — Encyclopaedia Iranica". Significant differences from South Azerbaijani [azb] in phonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax, and loanwords.

Turkish language or Azerbaijani language? Retrieved 15 August Ethnicity and the Struggle for Power in Iran.

Hrair; Simonian, Hovann H. The Geopolitics of the Caspian Region. Until , when the Musavat regime decided to name the newly independent state Azerbaijan, this designation had been used exclusively to identify the Iranian province of Azerbaijan.

Ethno-territorial conflict and coexistence in the caucasus, Central Asia and Fereydan: The region to the north of the river Araxes was not called Azerbaijan prior to , unlike the region in northwestern Iran that has been called since so long ago.

The manuscript is copied in 19 lines of naskh on folios. There are notes and description of miniatures in Turkish in a later hand.

Under the Seljuks, local poets such as Nizami Ganjavi and Khaqani gave rise to a blossoming of Persian literature on the territory of present-day Azerbaijan.

Kara Koyunlu and Aq Qoyunlu. The Shirvanshahs returned, maintaining a high degree of autonomy as local rulers and vassals from , for numerous centuries to come.

In , the Safavid dynasty of Iran subdued the Shirvanshahs, and gained its possessions. In the course of the next century, the Safavids converted the formerly Sunni population to Shia Islam , [53] [54] [55] as they did with the population in what is modern-day Iran.

The Sunni Ottomans briefly managed to occupy parts of present-day Azerbaijan as a result of the Ottoman-Safavid War of — ; by the early 17th century, they were ousted by Safavid Iranian ruler Abbas I r.

In the wake of the demise of the Safavid Empire, Baku and its environs were briefly occupied by the Russians as a consequence of the Russo-Persian War of — After the Safavids , the area was ruled by the Iranian Afsharid dynasty.

After the death of Nader Shah r. Numerous self-ruling khanates with various forms of autonomy [57] [58] [59] [60] [61] emerged in the area.

The rulers of these khanates were directly related to the ruling dynasties of Iran, and were vassals and subjects of the Iranian shah.

Thereafter, the area was under the successive rule of the Iranian Zands and Qajars. The area to the north of the river Aras , amongst which territory lies the contemporary Republic of Azerbaijan, was Iranian territory until it was occupied by Russia in the 19th century.

The resulting Treaty of Turkmenchay , forced Qajar Iran to cede sovereignty over the Erivan Khanate, the Nakhchivan Khanate and the remainder of the Lankaran Khanate , [68] comprising the last parts of the soil of the contemporary Azerbaijani Republic that were still in Iranian hands.

Qajar Iran was forced to cede its Caucasian territories to Russia in the 19th century, which thus included the territory of the modern-day Azerbaijan Republic, while as a result of that cession, the Azerbaijani ethnic group is nowadays parted between two nations: It was followed by the March Days massacres [77] [78] [79] that took place between 30 March and 2 April in the city of Baku and adjacent areas of the Baku Governorate of the Russian Empire.

By March , it was obvious that Soviet Russia would attack Baku. Although the bulk of the newly formed Azerbaijani army was engaged in putting down an Armenian revolt that had just broken out in Karabakh , Azerbaijanis did not surrender their brief independence of —20 quickly or easily.

As many as 20, Azerbaijani soldiers died resisting what was effectively a Russian reconquest. On the other hand, Armenia was awarded the region of Zangezur and Turkey agreed to return Gyumri then known as Alexandropol.

By the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in February , the commitment of more than workers and employees of the oil industry of Azerbaijan were awarded orders and medals.

Approximately , people with over , of them women went to the front, while the total population of Azerbaijan was 3.

More than Azerbaijanis were named Heroes of the Soviet Union. Following the politics of glasnost , initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev , civil unrest and ethnic strife grew in various regions of the Soviet Union, including Nagorno-Karabakh , [88] an autonomous region of the Azerbaijan SSR.

The early years of independence were overshadowed by the Nagorno-Karabakh war with the ethnic Armenian majority of Nagorno-Karabakh backed by Armenia.

In , democratically elected president Abulfaz Elchibey was overthrown by a military insurrection led by Colonel Surat Huseynov , which resulted in the rise to power of the former leader of Soviet Azerbaijan , Heydar Aliyev.

He was reelected to a third term as president in October Three physical features dominate Azerbaijan: Nearly half of all the mud volcanoes on Earth are concentrated in Azerbaijan, these volcanoes were also among nominees for the New7Wonders of Nature.

The main water sources are surface waters. Since the independence of Azerbaijan in , the Azerbaijani government has taken measures to preserve the environment of Azerbaijan.

National protection of the environment accelerated after when the state budget increased due to new revenues provided by the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline.

Since the government has set up seven large reserves and almost doubled the sector of the budget earmarked for environmental protection.

Azerbaijan is home to a vast variety of landscapes. The formation of climate in Azerbaijan is influenced particularly by cold arctic air masses of Scandinavian anticyclone , temperate air masses of Siberian anticyclone, and Central Asian anticyclone.

That leads to the formation of subtropical climate on most foothills and plains of the country. Meanwhile, plains and foothills are characterized by high solar radiation rates.

Rivers and lakes form the principal part of the water systems of Azerbaijan, they were formed over a long geological timeframe and changed significantly throughout that period.

This is particularly evidenced by remnants of ancient rivers found throughout the country. In terms of water supply, Azerbaijan is below the average in the world with approximately , cubic metres 3,, cubic feet per year of water per square kilometer.

The hydrography of Azerbaijan basically belongs to the Caspian Sea basin. There are 8, rivers of various lengths within Azerbaijan. The rivers that directly flow into the Caspian Sea, originate mainly from the north-eastern slope of the Major Caucasus and Talysh Mountains and run along the Samur—Devechi and Lankaran lowlands.

Yanar Dag , translated as "burning mountain", is a natural gas fire which blazes continuously on a hillside on the Absheron Peninsula on the Caspian Sea near Baku , which itself is known as the "land of fire.

It is a tourist attraction to visitors to the Baku area. The first reports on the richness and diversity of animal life in Azerbaijan can be found in travel notes of Eastern travelers.

Animal carvings on architectural monuments, ancient rocks and stones survived up to the present times. The first information on the flora and fauna of Azerbaijan was collected during the visits of naturalists to Azerbaijan in the 17th century.

There are species of mammals, 97 species of fish, species of birds, 10 species of amphibians and 52 species of reptiles which have been recorded and classified in Azerbaijan.

The Karabakh horse has a reputation for its good temper, speed, elegance and intelligence. It is one of the oldest breeds, with ancestry dating to the ancient world.

However, today the horse is an endangered species. Due to the unique climate in Azerbaijan, the flora is much richer in the number of species than the flora of the other republics of the South Caucasus.

According to Article 23 of the Constitution, the state symbols of the Azerbaijan Republic are the flag , the coat of arms , and the national anthem.

The state power in Azerbaijan is limited only by law for internal issues, but for international affairs is additionally limited by the provisions of international agreements.

The Constitution of Azerbaijan states that it is a presidential republic with three branches of power — Executive, Legislative and Judicial.

The Parliament of Azerbaijan, called Milli Majlis, consists of deputies and elected based on majority voting system, with a term of 5 years for each elected member.

The elections are held every five years, on the first Sunday of November. During the Parliamentary election , the opposition parties, Musavat and Azerbaijani Popular Front Party , failed to win a single seat.

European observers found numerous irregularities in the run-up to the election and on election day. The executive power is held by the President , who is elected for a seven-year term by direct elections, and the Prime Minister.

The president is authorized to form the Cabinet, a collective executive body, accountable to both the President and the National Assembly. The president does not have the right to dissolve the National Assembly, but has the right to veto its decisions.

To override the presidential veto, the parliament must have a majority of 95 votes. The president nominates the judges in these courts.

The European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice CEPEJ report refers to the Azerbaijani justice model on the selection of new judges as best practice, reflecting the particular features and the course of development towards ensuring the independence and quality of the judiciary in a new democracy.

The top or highest tier of the government is the Executive Power headed by President. The President appoints the Cabinet of Ministers and other high-ranking officials.

Currently there are 1, municipalities across the country. The Law on Municipal Elections and the Law on the Status of Municipalities were the first to be adopted in the field of local government 2 July The Law on Municipal Service regulates the activities of municipal employees, their rights, duties, labor conditions and social benefits, and outlines the structure of the executive apparatus and the organization of municipal service.

The Law on the Status of Municipalities regulates the role and structure of municipal bodies and outlines state guarantees of legal and financial autonomy.

The law pays special attention to the adoption and execution of municipal programs concerning social protection, social and economic development and the local environment.

The Security Council is the deliberative body under the president, and he organizes it according to the Constitution. It was established on 10 April Although Azerbaijan has held several elections since regaining its independence and it has many of the formal institutions of democracy, it remains classified as "not free" on border with "partly free" by Freedom House.

Azerbaijan has been harshly criticized for bribing foreign officials and diplomats in order to promote its causes abroad and legitimize its elections at home, a practice which has been termed as Caviar diplomacy.

The short-lived Azerbaijan Democratic Republic succeeded in establishing diplomatic relations with six countries, sending diplomatic representatives to Germany and Finland.

The most recent country to recognize Azerbaijan was Bahrain, on 6 November Azerbaijan has diplomatic relations with countries so far and holds membership in 38 international organizations.

The term of office began on 19 June Foreign policy priorities of Azerbaijan include, first of all, the restoration of its territorial integrity; elimination of the consequences of occupation of Nagorno-Karabakh and seven other regions of Azerbaijan surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh; [] [] integration into European and Euro-Atlantic structure; contribution to international security; cooperation with international organizations; regional cooperation and bilateral relations; strengthening of defense capability; promotion of security by domestic policy means; strengthening of democracy; preservation of ethnic and religious tolerance; scientific, educational, and cultural policy and preservation of moral values; economic and social development; enhancing internal and border security; and migration, energy, and transportation security policy.

The Azerbaijani government, in late , stated that the long-standing dispute over the Armenian-occupied territory of Nagorno-Karabakh is almost certain to spark a new war if it remains unresolved.

Azerbaijan is an active member of international coalitions fighting international terrorism. Azerbaijan was one of the first countries to offer support after the September 11 attacks.

It also maintains good relations with the European Union and could potentially one day apply for membership. The history of the modern Azerbaijan army dates back to Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in , when the National Army of the newly formed Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was created on 26 June There are also 17, paramilitary troops.

Additionally the armed forces embrace several military sub-groups that can be involved in state defense when needed.

It operates as a semi-independent entity of the Special State Protection Service, an agency subordinate to the President. Azerbaijan adheres to the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and has signed all major international arms and weapons treaties.

Azerbaijan has deployed of its Peacekeeping Forces in Iraq and another in Afghanistan. Azerbaijani defense industry manufactures small arms, artillery systems, tanks, armors and noctovision devices , aviation bombs, pilotless vehicles, various military vehicles and military planes and helicopters.

Pushed up by spending and demand growth, the Q1 inflation rate reached In the early s the chronically high inflation was brought under control.

This led to the launch of a new currency, the new Azerbaijani manat, on 1 January , to cement the economic reforms and erase the vestiges of an unstable economy.

Azerbaijan started operating a one-stop shop in January that halved the time, cost and number of procedures to start a business. Also, taxpayers can now file forms and pay their taxes online.

Two-thirds of Azerbaijan is rich in oil and natural gas. Arabian historian and traveler Ahmed Al-Belaruri discussed the economy of the Absheron peninsula in anntiquity, mentioning its oil in particular.

Baku—Tbilisi—Kars railway line will connect the Caspian region with Turkey, is expected to be completed in July Azerbaijan has the largest agricultural basin in the region.

Livestock, dairy products, and wine and spirits are also important farm products. The Caspian fishing industry concentrates on the dwindling stocks of sturgeon and beluga.

In the Azerbaijani merchant marine had 54 ships. Some products previously imported from abroad have begun to be produced locally.

Tourism is an important part of the economy of Azerbaijan. The country was a well-known tourist spot in the s. However, the fall of the Soviet Union, and the Nagorno-Karabakh War during the s, damaged the tourist industry and the image of Azerbaijan as a tourist destination.

It was not until the s that the tourism industry began to recover, and the country has since experienced a high rate of growth in the number of tourist visits and overnight stays.

The government of Azerbaijan has set the development of Azerbaijan as an elite tourist destination as a top priority.

It is a national strategy to make tourism a major, if not the single largest, contributor to the Azerbaijani economy.

There are 63 countries which have visa-free score. According to a report by the World Travel and Tourism Council, Azerbaijan was among the top ten countries showing the strongest growth in visitor exports between and , [] In addition, Azerbaijan placed first Azerbaijan is also an important economic hub in the transportation of raw materials.

In , the Azerbaijani government established the Ministry of Transport with a broad range of policy and regulatory functions. In the same year, the country became a member of the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic.

The construction of Kars—Tbilisi—Baku railway was meant to improve transportation between Asia and Europe by connecting the railways of China and Kazakhstan in the east to the European railway system in the west via Turkey.

By , there were 35 airports and one heliport. The government estimates that profits from the information technology and communication industry will grow and become comparable to those from oil production.

Azerbaijan has a large and steadily growing Internet sector, mostly uninfluenced by the global financial crisis ; rapid growth is forecast for at least five more years.

The country has also been making progress in developing its telecoms sector. Public pay phones are available for local calls and require the purchase of a token from the telephone exchange or some shops and kiosks.

Tokens allow a call of indefinite duration. As of [update] , there were 1,, main telephone lines [] and 1,, internet users.

In the 21st century a number of prominent Azerbaijani geodynamics and geotectonics scientists, inspired by the fundamental works of Elchin Khalilov and others, designed hundreds of earthquake prediction stations and earthquake-resistant buildings that now constitute the bulk of The Republican Center of Seismic Service.

As of [update] , The sex ratio in the same year was 0. The population growth-rate was 0. The Azerbaijani diaspora is found in 42 countries [] and in turn there are many centers for ethnic minorities inside Azerbaijan, including the German cultural society "Karelhaus", Slavic cultural center, Azerbaijani-Israeli community, Kurdish cultural center, International Talysh Association, Lezgin national center "Samur", Azerbaijani- Tatar community, Crimean Tatars society, etc.

The ethnic composition of the population according to the population census: Iranian Azerbaijanis are by far the largest minority in Iran. The number of ethnic Azerbaijanis in Iran furthermore far outnumber those in neighboring Azerbaijan.

In total, Azerbaijan has 78 cities, 63 city districts, and one special legal status city. These are followed by urban-type settlements and villages.

The official language is Azerbaijani , which is a Turkic language. Some of these language communities are very small and their numbers are decreasing.

Under article 48 of its Constitution , Azerbaijan is a secular state and ensures religious freedom. This makes Azerbaijan the least religious Muslim-majority country in the world.

State Department report on the matter mentions detention of members of certain Muslim and Christian groups, and many groups have difficulty registering with the SCWRA.

A relatively high percentage of Azerbaijanis have obtained some form of higher education, most notably in scientific and technical subjects.

According to Soviet data, percent of males and females ages nine to forty-nine were literate in Initial alterations have included the reestablishment of religious education banned during the Soviet period and curriculum changes that have reemphasized the use of the Azerbaijani language and have eliminated ideological content.

In addition to elementary schools, the education institutions include thousands of preschools, general secondary schools, and vocational schools , including specialized secondary schools and technical schools.

Education through the eighth grade is compulsory. The culture of Azerbaijan has developed as a result of many influences. Today, national traditions are well preserved in the country despite Western influences, including globalized consumer culture.

Some of the main elements of the Azerbaijani culture are: The latter is derived from the traditional celebration of the New Year in the ancient Iranian religion of Zoroastrianism.

Novruz is a family holiday. Azerbaijani national and traditional dresses are the Chokha and Papakhi. There are radio broadcasts in Russian, Georgian , Kurdish , Lezgian and Talysh languages, which are financed from the state budget.

Music of Azerbaijan builds on folk traditions that reach back nearly a thousand years. Mugham , meykhana and ashiq art are among the many musical traditions of Azerbaijan.

Mugham is usually a suite with poetry and instrumental interludes. When performing mugham, the singers have to transform their emotions into singing and music.

In contrast to the mugham traditions of Central Asian countries, Azerbaijani mugham is more free-form and less rigid; it is often compared to the improvised field of jazz.

Meykhana is a kind of traditional Azerbaijani distinctive folk unaccompanied song, usually performed by several people improvising on a particular subject.

Ashiq combines poetry, storytelling, dance and vocal and instrumental music into a traditional performance art that stands as a symbol of Azerbaijani culture.

It is a mystic troubadour or traveling bard who sings and plays the saz. This tradition has its origin in the Shamanistic beliefs of ancient Turkic peoples.

Since the mids, Western-influenced Azerbaijani pop music , in its various forms, that has been growing in popularity in Azerbaijan, while genres such as rock and hip hop are widely produced and enjoyed.

Azerbaijan made its debut appearance at the Eurovision Song Contest. There are dozens of Azerbaijani folk dances. They are performed at formal celebrations and the dancers wear national clothes like the Chokha , which is well-preserved within the national dances.

Most dances have a very fast rhythm. The national dance shows the characteristics of the Azerbaijani nation. The earliest known figure in Azerbaijani literature was Izzeddin Hasanoglu , who composed a divan consisting of Persian and Turkic ghazals.

Classical literature in Azerbaijani was formed in the 14th century based on the various Early Middle Ages dialects of Tabriz and Shirvan.

The Book of Dede Korkut consists of two manuscripts copied in the 16th century, [] was not written earlier than the 15th century.

Benefiting immensely from the fine literary traditions of his environment, and building upon the legacy of his predecessors, Fizuli was destined to become the leading literary figure of his society.

In the same century, Azerbaijani literature further flourished with the development of Ashik Azerbaijani: A unique literary style known as qoshma Azerbaijani: Modern literature in Azerbaijan is based on the Shirvani dialect mainly, while in Iran it is based on the Tabrizi one.

The first newspaper in Azerbaijani, Akinchi was published in In the midth century, it was taught in the schools of Baku , Ganja , Shaki , Tbilisi , and Yerevan.

Since , it has also been taught in the University of Saint Petersburg in Russia. Azerbaijanis have a rich and distinctive culture, a major part of which is decorative and applied art.

This form of art is represented by a wide range of handicrafts, such as chasing, jeweler, engraving in metal, carving in wood, stone and bone, carpet-making, lasing, pattern weaving and printing, knitting and embroidery.

Each of these types of decorative art, evidence of the endowments of the Azerbaijan nation, is very much in favor here. Many interesting facts pertaining to the development of arts and crafts in Azerbaijan were reported by numerous merchants, travelers and diplomats who had visited these places at different times.

Azerbaijan has been since the ancient times known as a center of a large variety of crafts. The archeological dig on the territory of Azerbaijan testifies to the well developed agriculture, stock raising, metal working, pottery, ceramics, and carpet-weaving that date as far back as to the 2nd millennium BC.

Azerbaijani carpets can be categorized under several large groups and a multitude of subgroups. Scientific research of the Azerbaijani carpet is connected with the name of Latif Kerimov , a prominent scientist and artist.

It was his classification that related the four large groups of carpets with the four geographical zones of Azerbaijan, Guba-Shirvan, Ganja-Kazakh, Karabakh and Tabriz.

The traditional cuisine is famous for an abundance of vegetables and greens used seasonally in the dishes. Fresh herbs, including mint, cilantro coriander , dill, basil, parsley, tarragon, leeks, chives, thyme, marjoram, green onion, and watercress, are very popular and often accompany main dishes on the table.

Climatic diversity and fertility of the land are reflected in the national dishes, which are based on fish from the Caspian Sea , local meat mainly mutton and beef , and an abundance of seasonal vegetables and greens.

Saffron-rice plov is the flagship food in Azerbaijan and black tea is the national beverage. Azerbaijani architecture typically combines elements of East and West.

Among other architectural treasures are Quadrangular Castle in Mardakan , Parigala in Yukhary Chardaglar , a number of bridges spanning the Aras River, and several mausoleums.

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, little monumental architecture was created, but distinctive residences were built in Baku and elsewhere.

Among the most recent architectural monuments, the Baku subways are noted for their lavish decor. Azerbaijani art includes one of the oldest art objects in the world, which were discovered as Gamigaya Petroglyphs in the territory of Ordubad Rayon are dated back to the 1st to 4th centuries BC.

About dislodged and carved rock paintings with images of deer, goats, bulls, dogs, snakes, birds, fantastic beings and also people, carriages and various symbols had been found out on basalt rocks.

Over the centuries, Azerbaijani art has gone through many stylistic changes. Azerbaijani painting is traditionally characterized by a warmth of colour and light, as exemplified in the works of Azim Azimzade and Bahruz Kangarli , and a preoccupation with religious figures and cultural motifs.

The film industry in Azerbaijan dates back to In fact, Azerbaijan was among the first countries involved in cinematography. Just like today, the oil industry attracted foreigners eager to invest and to work.

This also influenced the creation of Azerbaijani animation. In December , the former President of Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev, signed a decree proclaiming 2 August to be the professional holiday of filmmakers of Azerbaijan.

Today Azerbaijani filmmakers are again dealing with issues similar to those faced by cinematographers prior to the establishment of the Soviet Union in Once again, both choice of content and sponsorship of films are largely left up to the initiative of the filmmaker.

There are three state-owned television channels: One public channel and 6 private channels: The Constitution of Azerbaijan claims to guarantee freedom of speech, but this is denied in practice.

After several years of decline in press and media freedom, in , the media environment in Azerbaijan deteriorated rapidly under a governmental campaign to silence any opposition and criticism, even while the country led the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe May—November Spurious legal charges and impunity in violence against journalists have remained the norm.

During the last few years, [ when? Azerbaijan had the biggest number of journalists imprisoned in Europe and Central Asia in , according to the Committee to Protect Journalists , and is the 5th most censored country in the world, ahead of Iran and China.

Human rights organizations remained unable to resume their work. At least 18 prisoners of conscience remained in detention at the end of the year.

Reprisals against independent journalists and activists persisted both in the country and abroad, while their family members also faced harassment and arrests.

International human rights monitors were barred and expelled from the country. Reports of torture and other ill-treatment persisted.

Leaked data shows that the Azerbaijani leadership, accused of serial human rights abuses, systemic corruption and rigging elections, made more than 16, covert payments from to Currently, the most popular sports include football and wrestling.

Football is the most popular sport in Azerbaijan, and the Association of Football Federations of Azerbaijan with 9, registered players, is the largest sporting association in the country.

Backgammon also plays a major role in Azerbaijani culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the independent country in the Caucasus.

For other uses, see Azerbaijan disambiguation. Republic in Western Asia and Eastern Europe. Location of Azerbaijan green and Artsakh [a] light green.

Atropatene and Caucasian Albania. Extreme points of Azerbaijan. Fauna of Azerbaijan and Flora of Azerbaijan. Elections in Azerbaijan and Human rights in Azerbaijan.

Foreign relations of Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan and the European Union. Administrative divisions of Azerbaijan. Largest cities or towns in Azerbaijan Demographic statistics according to the administrative divisions , Azerbaijan State Statistics Committee.

Petroleum industry in Azerbaijan. Transportation in Azerbaijan and Rail transport in Azerbaijan. Ethnic minorities in Azerbaijan. List of cities in Azerbaijan.

Religions in Azerbaijan [] Islam. Religion in Azerbaijan and Freedom of religion in Azerbaijan. Culture of Azerbaijan and Literature of Azerbaijan.

Music of Azerbaijan and Azerbaijani dances. Visual arts of Azerbaijan. Cinema of Azerbaijan , Azerbaijani animation , and Television in Azerbaijan.

Media of Azerbaijan and Media freedom in Azerbaijan. Human rights in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan portal Europe portal Asia portal.

In Elgie, Robert ; Moestrup, Sophia. Semi-Presidentialism in the Caucasus and Central Asia. Palgrave Macmillan published 15 May LaPorte examines the dynamics of semi-presidentialism in Azerbaijan.

The author compares formal Constitutional provisions with the practice of politics in the country, suggesting that formal and informal sources of authority come together to enhance the effective powers of the presidency.

Retrieved 13 December United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 21 March Conversely, some sources place Azerbaijan in Europe such as Worldatlas.

A Borderland in Transition. The Formation of the Soviet Union: Communism and Nationalism — 2nd ed. New York University Press. Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 4 January Archived from the original on 9 June Retrieved 26 May Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 3 January Indicative of general regional trends and a natural reemergence of previously oppressed religious identity, an increasingly popular ideological basis for the pursuit of political objectives has been Islam The government, for its part, has shown an official commitment to Islam by building mosques and respecting Islamic values Unofficial Islamic groups sought to use aspects of Islam to mobilize the population and establish the foundations for a future political struggle Unlike Turkey, Azerbaijan does not have the powerful ideological legacy of secularism All major political forces are committed to secularism and are based, if anything, on a nationalist agenda.

Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 24 July Retrieved 6 March First Encyclopaedia of Islam — reprint ed.

John Wiley and Sons. Alexander the Great in Fact and fiction. Historical Dictionary of Azerbaijan. Book Of Common Prayer reprint ed.

Iranian and Greek Influences". Retrieved 7 June

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