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He was now ready. The Battle of Thermopylae is the most famous battle of the Second Persian Invasion of Greece and one of the most famous battles in European ancient history.
Unlike other battles, however, it was not a victory for the Greeks, but a defeat. Its fame is derived from being one of the most courageous last stands by the vastly outnumbered defending army of Greek city states led by King Leonidas of Sparta against the invading Persians under King Xerxes.
It took place in a narrow pass between the mountains of central Greece and the sea, called Thermopylae. This was a strategic move on the part of the Greeks.
The narrowness of the pass negated the advantage the Persians had in numbers. The site of the battle today: Although the Spartans were the most famous combatants on the Greek side, they were not the only Greeks present at the battle.
One has to bear in mind that the Spartans had other Greek allies with them, including the Thespians, Thebans, soldiers from Mycaene and other Greek states.
Herodotus gives the actual number of Peloponnesians at the battle alone as 3, or 4,, and a grand total of over 5, Greeks. Modern estimates, however, suggest that the Greek forces numbered at around 20,, which included the helots , retainers, and auxiliaries.
The number of invading Persians is disputed at being between two hundred thousand to two and a half millions soldiers, though it is most likely closer to the former.
Herodotus reports that before going into battle at Thermopylae, Leonidas consulted with the famous Oracle of Delphi, who issued a grim prophecy:.
The might of bulls or lions will not restrain him with opposing strength; for he has the might of Zeus. English translation by A. Keeping this in mind, he selected only men with living sons for his Spartan contingent, so that should they fall in battle, their sons could carry forward their family lines.
En route to the battlefield, the Spartans recruited several forces from other Greek states. The Battle of Thermopylae took place over three days.
For the first two days, the Greeks were able to hold the front line, preventing the Persians from breaking through the narrow pass.
Their longer thrusting spears and their heavy shields and body armor gave them a distinct advantage over the Persians, who were equipped with shorter javelin-type spears, wicker shields, and armor made only of woven linen.
The Greeks employed a phalanx formation, a rectangular mass military formation composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, which was able to block the narrow pass with ease.
The Spartans also used a clever strategy in which they pretended to retreat so that the Persians pursued them. They would then turn suddenly to attack.
In the confusion they killed many of the enemy, who were caught off guard. Men standing shoulder to shoulder in a Greek phalanx formation, based on sources from the Perseus Project.
The tide turned when during the battle, a Malian member of a Greek tribe named Ephialtes, revealed a path that led the Persians around the mountain towards the back of the defending force.
As darkness fell, Xerxes sent his best soldiers to take the path and come round behind the Greek army guarding the pass below. When word reached Leonidas that their position had been compromised, he made a decision that continues to be the subject of immense analysis and debate — rather than abandon their position and withdraw to the south before the Persians arrived, Leonidas relieved the majority of his army, while ordering the Spartans, Thespians, and Thebans to remain and fight.
It is unclear why he chose to stay, along with his small contingent of Spartans, Thespians and Thebans. Other historians maintain that he remained in order to give the allied contingents, whom he dismissed apart from the Thebans and Thespians , time to escape.
In any case, there could only be one outcome — their slaughter. On the third and final day of the battle, the Persians had moved behind the Greek position and surrounded them in both directions.
King Leonidas, as well as every last soldier that stood with him, were killed. The Battle of Thermophylae was undoubtedly a defeat for the Greeks, which allowed the Persians to continue their march into Greece.
They eventually reached and sacked Athens. November 13 , in Paisley, Scotland, UK. View agent, publicist, legal on IMDbPro.
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International Dictionary of Historic Places. Poetry, Patronage, and Politics in the Age of Union. Random House Publishing Group.
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Herodotus says they jumped up and were greatly amazed. Learning from a runner that the Phocians had not held the path, Leonidas called a council of war at dawn.
While many of the Greeks took him up on his offer and fled, around two thousand soldiers stayed behind to fight and die.
Knowing that the end was near, the Greeks marched into the open field and met the Persians head-on. Many of the Greek contingents then either chose to withdraw without orders or were ordered to leave by Leonidas Herodotus admits that there is some doubt about which actually happened.
It is commonly stated that the Spartans were obeying the laws of Sparta by not retreating. It has also been proposed that the failure to retreat from Thermopylae that gave rise to the notion that Spartans never retreated.
The most likely theory is that Leonidas chose to form a rearguard so that the other Greek contingents could get away. If they had all remained at the pass, they would have been encircled and would eventually have all been killed.
The Thebans have also been the subject of some discussion. Herodotus suggests they were brought to the battle as hostages to ensure the good behavior of Thebes.
However, this alone does not explain the fact that they remained; the remainder of Thespiae was successfully evacuated before the Persians arrived there.
At dawn, Xerxes made libations , pausing to allow the Immortals sufficient time to descend the mountain, and then began his advance.
The Greeks this time sallied forth from the wall to meet the Persians in the wider part of the pass, in an attempt to slaughter as many Persians as they could.
Tearing down part of the wall, Xerxes ordered the hill surrounded, and the Persians rained down arrows until every last Greek was dead.
The pass at Thermopylae was thus opened to the Persian army, according to Herodotus, at the cost to the Persians of up to 20, fatalities.
Herodotus observes this was very uncommon for the Persians, as they traditionally treated "valiant warriors" with great honour the example of Pytheas, captured off Skiathos before the Battle of Artemisium , strengthens this suggestion.
Legend has it that he had the very water of the Hellespont whipped because it would not obey him. After the Persian invasion was repulsed, a stone lion was erected at Thermopylae to commemorate Leonidas.
With Thermopylae now opened to the Persian army, the continuation of the blockade at Artemisium by the Greek fleet became irrelevant.
The simultaneous naval Battle of Artemisium had been a tactical stalemate, and the Greek navy was able to retreat in good order to the Saronic Gulf , where they helped to ferry the remaining Athenian citizens to the island of Salamis.
Following Thermopylae, the Persian army proceeded to sack and burn Plataea and Thespiae , the Boeotian cities that had not submitted, before it marched on the now evacuated city of Athens.
Luring the Persian navy into the Straits of Salamis, the Greek fleet was able to destroy much of the Persian fleet in the Battle of Salamis , which essentially ended the threat to the Peloponnese.
Fearing the Greeks might attack the bridges across the Hellespont and trap his army in Europe, Xerxes now retreated with much of the Persian army back to Asia,  though nearly all of them died of starvation and disease on the return voyage.
Thermopylae is arguably the most famous battle in European ancient history, repeatedly referenced in ancient, recent, and contemporary culture.
In Western culture at least, it is the Greeks who are lauded for their performance in battle. The battle itself had showed what a few free men, willing to do anything for victory against the invaders, could accomplish, and the defeat at Thermopylae had turned Leonidas and the men under his command into martyrs.
That boosted the morale of all Greek soldiers in the second Persian invasion. It is sometimes stated that Thermopylae was a Pyrrhic victory for the Persians   i.
However, there is no suggestion by Herodotus that the effect on the Persian forces was that. The idea ignores the fact that the Persians would, in the aftermath of Thermopylae, conquer the majority of Greece,  and the fact that they were still fighting in Greece a year later.
For instance, Cawkwell states: Xerxes had every reason to congratulate himself",  while Lazenby describes the Greek defeat as "disastrous".
The fame of Thermopylae is thus principally derived not from its effect on the outcome of the war but for the inspirational example it set.
So almost immediately, contemporary Greeks saw Thermopylae as a critical moral and culture lesson. In universal terms, a small, free people had willingly outfought huge numbers of imperial subjects who advanced under the lash.
More specifically, the Western idea that soldiers themselves decide where, how, and against whom they will fight was contrasted against the Eastern notion of despotism and monarchy—freedom proving the stronger idea as the more courageous fighting of the Greeks at Thermopylae, and their later victories at Salamis and Plataea attested.
While this paradigm of "free men" outfighting "slaves" can be seen as a rather sweeping over-generalization there are many counter-examples , it is nevertheless true that many commentators have used Thermopylae to illustrate this point.
Militarily, although the battle was actually not decisive in the context of the Persian invasion, Thermopylae is of some significance on the basis of the first two days of fighting.
The performance of the defenders is used as an example of the advantages of training, equipment, and good use of terrain as force multipliers.
A well-known epigram , usually attributed to Simonides , was engraved as an epitaph on a commemorative stone placed on top of the burial mound of the Spartans at Thermopylae.
It is also the hill on which the last of them died. The text from Herodotus is: The form of this ancient Greek poetry is an elegiac couplet , commonly used for epitaphs.
Some English renderings are given in the table below. It is also an example of Laconian brevity , a Spartan style of verse that allows for varying interpretations of the meaning of the poem.
It was well known in ancient Greece that all the Spartans who had been sent to Thermopylae had been killed there with the exception of Aristodemus and Pantites , and the epitaph exploits the conceit that there was nobody left to bring the news of their deeds back to Sparta.
A variant of the epigram is inscribed on the Polish Cemetery at Monte Cassino. John Ruskin expressed the importance of this ideal to Western civilization as follows:.
Also obedience in its highest form is not obedience to a constant and compulsory law, but a persuaded or voluntary yielded obedience to an issued command His name who leads the armies of Heaven is "Faithful and True" Cicero recorded a Latin variation in his Tusculanae Disputationes 1.
Additionally, there is a modern monument at the site, called the "Leonidas Monument", in honour of the Spartan king. It features a bronze statue of Leonidas.
A sign, under the statue, reads simply: The metope below depicts battle scenes. The two marble statues on the left and the right of the monument represent, respectively, the river Eurotas and Mount Taygetos , famous landmarks of Sparta.
In , a second monument was officially unveiled by the Greek government, dedicated to the Thespians who fought with the Spartans.
The monument is made of marble and features a bronze statue depicting the god Eros , to whom the ancient Thespians accorded particular religious veneration.
Under the statue, a sign reads: These accounts are obviously not verifiable, but they form an integral part of the legend of the battle and often demonstrate the laconic speech and wit of the Spartans to good effect.
It is reported that, upon arriving at Thermopylae, the Persians sent a mounted scout to reconnoitre. The Greeks allowed him to come up to the camp, observe them, and depart.
Seeking the counsel of Demaratus , an exiled Spartan king in his retinue, Xerxes was told the Spartans were preparing for battle, and it was their custom to adorn their hair when they were about to risk their lives.
Demaratus called them "the bravest men in Greece" and warned the Great King they intended to dispute the pass. He emphasized that he had tried to warn Xerxes earlier in the campaign, but the king had refused to believe him.
He added that if Xerxes ever managed to subdue the Spartans, "there is no other nation in all the world which will venture to lift a hand in their defence.
The ambassador told Leonidas that Xerxes would offer him the kingship of all Greece if he joined with Xerxes. To this Leonidas gave his famous answer: Such Laconic bravery doubtlessly helped to maintain morale.
Herodotus writes that when Dienekes , a Spartan soldier, was informed that Persian arrows would be so numerous as "to block out the sun", he retorted, unconcerned: After the battle, Xerxes was curious as to what the Greeks had been trying to do presumably because they had had so few men and had some Arcadian deserters interrogated in his presence.
When Xerxes asked what the prize was for the winner, the answer was: Upon hearing this, Tigranes , a Persian general, said: It is not for riches that they contend but for honour!
Men that fight not for gold, but for glory. The Battle of Thermopylae has remained a cultural icon of western civilization ever since it was fought.
The battle is revisited in countless adages and works of popular culture, such as in films e. The battle is also discussed in many articles and books on the theory and practice of warfare.
Prior to the battle, the Hellenes remembered the Dorians , an ethnic distinction which applied to the Spartans , as the conquerors and displacers of the Ionians in the Peloponnesus.
After the battle, Spartan culture became an inspiration and object of emulation, a phenomenon known as Laconophilia. Similarities between the Battle of Thermopylae and the Battle of Persian Gate have been recognized by both ancient and modern authors,  which describe it as a kind of reversal of the Battle of Thermopylae,  calling it "the Persian Thermopylae".
Although some authors state the result was a Pyrrhic victory for Persia,   the majority of authors do not apply this label to the result: No real consensus exists; even the most recent estimates by academics vary between , and , As Holland puts it, "in short From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other battles at Thermopylae, see Battle of Thermopylae disambiguation. For the film, see The Spartans. Persians defeated Greek states in BC.
Second Persian invasion of Greece. Battle of Thermopylae in popular culture. Sparta in popular culture. Ancient Greece portal Military of Greece portal.
A Corpus of Sources of the Achaemenid Period: Retrieved 26 November The Greek and Persian Wars B. Thereupon the Spartans sent these men to Media for execution.
The Battle For The West: Archived from the original JPG on 30 September Egypt, Greece, and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean.
Retrieved 9 October Archived from the original on 28 February Retrieved 27 March Archived from the original on 19 March Filling Gaps in the Thermopylae Epigram".
Retrieved 10 October International Dictionary of Historic Places. Heckel, "Alexander at the Persian Gates", Athenaeum 58 , , p. Prevas , Envy of the Gods: Retrieved 10 August Retrieved from " https: Articles with short description Good articles Use dmy dates from April Coordinates on Wikidata Articles containing Ancient Greek-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from October Articles with unsourced statements from July Commons category link is on Wikidata.
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